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SARL Today HF Update with ZS4BS VHF/UHF News with Mike Bosch ZS2FM Contest News with Geoff ZS6C SARL Forum current topics Commercial Hamads


Amateur Radio Today and SARL NEWS

Listen to  these programmes on line or download to retransmit on local nets, a SARL service to Radio Amateurs. Get the transmission schdule here .

Sunday 25 February 2018

SARLNUUS Jan Kramer ZS6JRK luister hier/laai af

SARLNEWS Dave Reece ZS1DFR download/listen here 

AMATEUR RADIO TODAY with Hans van de Groenendaal ZS6AKV listen here or for more details click here 

Find out more how rado amateurs and scientists work together in HamSCI - Ham Science  Citizen Investigation

Notice of a Special General Meeting - A request for a SGM has been received by the SARL Council. The SGM will take place from 09:00 on Saturday 14 April 2018 at the Farm Inn Country Hotel and Wildlife Sanctuary in Pretoria. Read more on the SGM Information Page

ICASA Licence Fees - DO NOT pay the ICASA licence fee into the SARL bank account, all moneys wrongfully paid into the SARL account will be refunded less the bank charges associated with these transactions.

The correct account for your ICASA Licence Fee is NEDBANK Account number: 14 62 00 29 27 , Branch Code: 146245 - Corporate Client Services – Pretoria and in the reference field type in your licence number and callsign.

Bouvet Island team in Cape Town - On Saturday 17 February 2018, the 3Y0Z team arrived at Cape Town harbour after their long voyage up from Bouvet Island on the m/v Betanzos. They were greeted by local ZS  amateurs on a ketch that sailed out from the Yacht Club to greet them. On Sunday the Cape Town Amateur Radio Centre (CTARC) memb

ers met the 3Y0Z team at a hotel in Strand Street and started ferrying them across to the Royal Cape Yacht Club for a farewell function before they  departed for home. The Dxpediton was aborted due to poor weather condton and engine problem with the m/v Betanzos. (For more click here) Top picture Nico van Rensburg ZS6QL, SARL President, in conversation with  Erling LA6VM.

The Bouvet Island DXpedition team in Cape Town

 The Boys are back from Bouvet - Watch the Ham Nation episode 339 

 AMSATSA and HARC to hold SDR workshop in Durban(Bookings closed Fully Booked)The Highway Amateur Radio Club will be hosting a SDR workshop in Durban on 3 March 2018 lead by Anton Janovsky ZR6AIC. Dongles and  memory sticks with software can be pre-ordered and will be deliverd at the workshop.  For full details and an order form click here. The closing date is 23 February.

February 2018 Radio ZS

The February 2018 issue of Radio ZS can be downloaded.


PARC hosts the 2018 SARL National Convention

Relaying Amateur Radio Today

The Year When Digital Modes Changed Forever

Ring-rigstraler vir satelliet kommunikasie

Switches, Part 2

Co-Launched CubeSats Settling into Orbits

The Archduke of Austria was a Radio Amateur

VHF, UHF, SHF and EHF News

Secretive "Numbers Stations" Persist on HF

The “Largely Plastic" 2 m Antenna

The Museum Piece

History of Amateur Radio, part 7

Two Band Quad Loop Antenna

Bill Brown, WB8ELK: Master of High-Altitude Balloon Projects

CQ Contest - Februarie/February

So, you want to build a magnetic loop?

Homebrew APRS – Arduino Uno KISS TNC

Five Band Indoor Magnetic Loop Aerial

What is Amateur Radio?

Back page 

2018 ARRL HANDBOOK -  The Handbook has been extensively updated, and includes significant new content. Each chapter has been authored and edited by experts in the subject.

For the new ham…you will be amazed at how quickly you become familiar, not only with the theory, but also with the practical aspects of radio – from long waves to microwaves. 

For the experienced ham…you’re in for a surprise and delight when you see the extent of the latest revisions. This edition is the most comprehensive revision since the 2014 edition.“ For more  details click here. Only 5 copies available

Amateur Radio License fee increase

-ICASA has informed the SARL that the licence fee will be increased by 5.3% on 1 April 2018. The new fees will be 

1 Year   -              R 141.00

2 Year   -              R 269.00

3 Year   -              R 386.00

4 Year   -              R 492.00

5 Year   -              R 588.00  

ICASA will start the invoicing process for the 2018/2019 period from 5 February 2018. Radio Amateurs are reminded that it is their responsibility to ensure their license is up to date. If for some reason no invoice is received, check that ICASA has been informed of any address changes. 

Avoid the hassles of having to renew each year, opt for a multi-year licence. Simply, when renewing pay the appropriate amount. On the EFT state 5 Year licence and your callsign. Also send an email to with a copy of the EFT payment.

PRETORIA AMATEUR RADIO CLUB TO HOST THE SARL NATIONAL CONVENTION 2018The Pretoria Amateur Radio Club will be presenting the 2018 SARL National Convention at the Farm Inn Country Lodge ( at Silver Lakes in Pretoria East over the weekend of 13 to 15 April. The Club will be hosting a large flea market on Saturday 14 April with various other stalls and exhibits.

2018 Advertising in Radio ZS and the SARL Web siteRadio ZS and the SARL web welcomes advertising. It is a source of information for readers. To place an advertisement in Radio ZS, contact Dennis, ZS4BS, at To advertise on the League web site, contact Hans, ZS6AKV at

Advertising Rates

Display (cameo) on home page and Radio ZS Strip advertisement (10 cm by 2 columns) - R500 pm - R2 500 for 6 months - R4 500 per annum

Commercial Hamad on home page - R60 pm - R300 for 6 months - R500 per annum

Terms and conditions

All contract advertisements content may be changed monthly on 5 working day notice

The rates are based on the complete supply of material in Jpeg unless otherwise negotiated. For artwork additional charges may apply as agreed

The content of the advertisements must comply with regulations and norms acceptable in South Africa

All advertisements are playable in advance by EFT to SA Radio League, ABSA, account no 4071 588 849 branch code 632 005

All correspondence and material must be sent to with a copy to

HF Update with Dennis, ZS4BS 23 February 2018 

Get your weekly copy of HF Happenings at 

3Y0I Bouvet Island DXpedition to Extend Beyond Amateur Radio. Members of the 3Y0I DXpedition to Bouvet Island will be doing more than handing out contacts to the world's community of DXers. According to the 3Y01 Bouvet Island DXpedition, this will mark the first-ever Polish-led expedition to Bouvet, and it will include geographical exploration of the island, a trek to the top of the island's glacier, Olavtoppen (or Olav’s Peak, not SOTA), at 780 meters above sea level and photo and video documentation of the team's voyage to Bouvet and stay on the island, both for sponsors and the Norwegian Polar Institute. The DXpedition also will place what the 3Y0I is describing as a "time capsule" on Olavtoppen. A dependency of Norway, Bouvet is among the remotest places on the planet.

"Such gigantic geographical isolation, combined with severe weather conditions, and a lack of communication channels in this region of the world, Bouvet Island is one of the least-visited places on Earth," the 3Y0I website describes. "Fewer people have put their feet on [Bouvet] than on the surface of the moon. Our expedition is really an expedition into the unknown."

Bouvet is #2 on the DXCC Most-Wanted List, right behind North Korea, from which 3Y0I DXpedition leader Dom Grzyb, 3Z9DX, operated briefly in December 2015. "Over 1 million amateurs from all continents are waiting for a contact [with Bouvet]. No wonder. The last time Bouvet Island was heard on the amateur bands was 10 years ago," the team's website said. The DXpedition's members face a voyage of up to 3 weeks on often-stormy South Atlantic waters. Dom has raised the possibility of live online video feeds from the trip, as well as social media exposure. The contingent of DXers will set sail from South Africa on a seagoing yacht adapted for extreme weather. No dates for the 3Y0I DXpedition have been announced, but it will take place during the sub-Antarctic summer in the Southern Hemisphere.

Kosovo, Z60A. Delegates from ten different countries were part of the initial Kosovo activation, which resulted in 81,478 QSOs with 26,487 unique call signs. Of the total number of QSOs, some 22% (17,876) were from North America and 10% (8255) were with DXers in Asia. Europe was obviously dominating with 66% (53,725) QSOs. "Please kindly look at your QSOs in Club Log and at (Z60A). In the case of errors, please allow the group look at problems and correct them accordingly. For a next three weeks, errors will be worked out and the log will be entered into Logbook of the World (LoTW). Early donors will receive their direct QSL cards with others to follow immediately thereafter."

Australia, VK - The Gold Coast Amateur Radio Society (VK4WIG) will be active as VI4GAMES from 1 March to 31 May to celebrate the XXI Commonwealth Games that will be held in Gold Coast City between 4 and 15 April.

Serbia, YU. Special call signs YT100SF and YU100WWI are active until 31 December to mark the 100th anniversary of the breakthrough of the Salonica Front and the end of World War I. QSL via LoTW or via YU1SRS (direct or bureau); log searches on Club Log.

This Weekend on the Radio.  The CQ 160-Meter SSB Contest, North American RTTY QSO Party, NCCC RTTY Sprint, QRP 80-Meter CW Fox Hunt, NCCC CW Sprint, REF Contest, UBA DX CW Contest, South Carolina QSO Party, High Speed Club CW Contest, SARL Digital Contest and the North Carolina QSO Party will certainly keep contesters busy this weekend.

VHF+ UHF+ MICROWAVE NEWS by Mike Bosch ZS2FM 18 February 2018 2018 


Tutorial 4 – Sporadic-E Propagation.

Today we are going to have a look at Sporadic-E propagation that can produce the strongest signals on 50 MHz, or even weaker signals as high as 144 MHz or as far down as 27 MHz. It produces a skip distance around 600 km on 50 MHz and about 900 km on 144 MHz, and could cover about 2500 km on a single hop. Under certain conditions double-hop Sporadic-E becomes possible and extend the range considerably.


It is unpredictable and its cause has puzzled scientists for a long time. Small Es clouds can appear in the E-layer at a height of 90 to 120 kilometres in circular or irregular form, and when tilted can extend the range of a single hop. Even low power on 50 MHz can cover some long distances. It usually starts off with a fluttery weak signal that could increase to a strength of S9 within minutes. The midlattitude Sporadic-E season usually occurs during a number of days in December and January, and could last from a few minutes up to several hours.


Sporadic-E clouds my form quickly and slowly move westward. Scientists have focused on the ion content caused by burnt-out meteors in the E-layer. They have also paid attention to the high velocity winds that could cause windshear in the E-layer. These two factors could be responsible for the dense patchy regions of the E-layer ionization.


Then there are also the almost daily Sporadic-E openings that occured around noon for an hour or two during the Es season, The FM sound channels around 53,750 MHz have been copied at full limiting in Port Elizabeth emanating from the old Band III TV stations in Gwero, Kabwe and as far north as the Congo.


Next week we will concentrate on Meteor Scatter propagation.








The Grand Overall Digital Winner

Pieter Jacobs, V51PJ, scored 212 904 points as a base station on 50, 70 and 144 MHz

1st Runner-Up

Christo Greyling, ZR6AUI, scored 71 940 points as a base station,

2nd Runner-Up

Andre Botes, ZS2ACP, scored 44 345 points in a four hour per session Limited Category.


Longest distance achieved on Digital.

Willem Badenhorst, ZS6WAB, and Pieter Jacobs, V51PJ, established a new distance record of 1348 km on 50, 70 and 144 MHz Digital.


We would like to welcome new participants in our digital contest. They are: Alan Saul. ZS1LS of Cape Town, Michael Steenkamp, ZS2MIC from Despatch, and Andrew Prideauw, ZS2PA at Uitenhage.




Grand Overall Analogue Winner

Carl Minne, ZS6CBQ, scored 171 220 points from a base station in Krugersdorp.

1st Runner-Up

Pierre Lindeque, ZS4PF, scored 45 240 points from a base station in Welkom.

2nd Runner-Up

Rickus de Lange, ZS4A, scored 22 170 points as a base station in Bethlehem.


Longest distance worked on Analogue

Carl Minne, ZS6CBQ, in Krugersdorp and Servaas Wahl, ZS6SER, at Louis Trichardt recorded a distance of 402 km on 144 MHz.


Winner of Limited Category

ZS1CRG as a muli-operater station scored 4176 points during a four period per session, and was run by ZS1DUP and ZS1DWH.  


Al Akers, ZS2U, scored 700 points as a base station from Port Elizabeth during the Limited Category


Winner of the FM category

Max Bouckley, ZS6MAX, scored 300 points on 145,500 MHz FM from his base station in Lyndhurst, JHB.


Divisional Analogue Winners

Division 1: ZS1CRG, mukti-operator station – 4178 points.

Division 2: Al Akers, ZS2U – 700 points.

Division 3: Poor propagation conditions.

Division 4: Pierre Lindeque, ZS4PF – 45 240 points.

Division 5: Dave Jones, ZS5DJ – 650 points.

Division 6: Carl Minne, ZS6CBQ – 171 220 points.


It appeared that there were many amateurs active during the analogue contest, but only a few bothered to send in log sheets.


WIRELESS INSTITUTE OF AUSTRALIA SEEKS AMATEUR RADIO POWR INCREASE – The Wireless Institute of Australia (WIA) is seeking a power increase for radio amateurs. WIA is pushing telecommunications regulator the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) to bump up maximum power levels for all three licenses classes to 50 W for Foundation licensees, 200 W for Standard licensees, and 1,500 W for Advanced licensees. For some time the WIA has pushed for higher power limits for Advanced licensees, who feel the current 400 W HF power limit (120 W on constant-carrier modes) puts them at a disadvantage, especially in contests, while other countries permit 1 kW or more. In 2013, ACMA ended an 18-month trial that allowed participating Advanced licensees to run up to 1 kW on HF. Currently, Foundation licensees on HF may run up to 10 W PEP on SSB (or 3 W on CW, AM, or FM), while Standard licensees have a 100-W PEP HF power limit (SSB) or 30 W for constant-carrier modes. It could also be a boon for VHF experiments.


NEW BLACK BOX TO SEARCH FOR LIFE BEYOND EARTH – In the world's driest desert, an unassuming black box called Espresso is about to begin a very big mission: scouring the Universe for planets like ours to find signs of life beyond Earth. Espresso, an instrument known as a spectrograph, has a humble appearance that belies its cutting-edge technology: it is the most precise instrument of its kind ever built, 10 times stronger than its most powerful predecessor.


In the Atacama Desert, in northern Chile, Espresso will be hooked up to four telescopes so big that scientists simply named them the Very Large Telescope, or VLT. Together, they will search the skies for exoplanets—those outside our own solar system—looking for ones that are similar to Earth. The Atacama is a particularly good place for this kind of exploration. Its skies are completely cloudless most of the year, which is why the highly respected European Southern Observatory, which runs the VLT program, set up shop there in the first place. In fact, many of the world's major telescopes are located in the area. By 2020, the Atacama is expected to be home to about 70% of the world's astronomy infrastructure.


It will analyse the light of the stars observed by the VLT, enabling it to determine whether planets orbit around them, and important information about those planets themselves: what their atmosphere is like, whether they have oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, and whether there is water—all essential for supporting life. Espresso will be available on all four telescopes at once, which is something that had never been done before. That means the likelihood of finding planets similar to Earth in mass and size, or the conditions for life, are greater.


Espresso will help us answer one of the greatest questions we have in astronomy, which is analysing and understanding planets outside our solar system. The new spectrograph is housed inside a giant metal cylinder chilled to an average temperature of -150 C (-238 F)—essential for its delicate optical instruments to do their work. It was installed early last year beneath the base of the VLT, which is perched atop the 2,600-metre altitude Paranal mountain. Espresso is currently in testing phase, but in 10 months' time it will officially begin its big mission—which is also a solitary one.


CONTEST NEWS WITH ZS6C Updated25 February 2018 

SARL Digital Contest: Aim: To establish as many contacts as possible between radio amateurs in Southern Africa using the FT8 / RTTY mode(s). The contest is open to all radio amateurs in Southern Africa. Date and Time: 14:00 UTC to 17:00 UTC on Sunday 25 February 2018. Bands: 80 metres (3 580 to 3 600 kHz), 40 metres (7 040 to 7 060 kHz), 20 metres (14 070 to 14 099 kHz): Modes: FT8 + RTTY. Contacts: A station may be contacted twice on each band once on RTTY, once on FT8. Exchange: RST report and your grid square (first 4 digits) e.g. KG33. (See Blue Book for more info)

ARRL Inter. DX Contest, SSB: Objectives: W/VE amateurs work as many DX stations in as many DXCC entities as possible on the 160, 80, 40, 20, 15, and 10 meter bands.  DX stations work as many W/VE stations in as many of the 48 contiguous states and provinces as possible.  Date and Contest Period:  First full weekend in March (March 3-4, 2018). Contest Period: 0000 UTC Saturday through 2359 UTC Sunday. Contest Exchange: W/VE stations send signal report and state or province. DX stations send signal report and power (number or abbreviation indicating approximate transmitter output power).

UBA Spring Contest 2018: The UBA section of DST (Diest) invites all radio amateurs to take part in the 35th edition of the UBA SPRING-CONTEST. Contest dates: HF-80m CW: 4 March 2018 (07.00 -11.00 hour UTC). Foreign stations: Only contacts with ON stations are valid.

SARL Hamnet 40 m Simulated Emergency Contest: Aim: This SSB Contest is open to all Radio Amateurs in South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Mozambique, Lesotho, Marion Island and South African Antarctica. Only contacts with these areas will count. Date and Time: 12:00 to 14:00 UTC on Sunday 4 March 2018. Frequencies: It is a phone contest in the band segments 7 063 to 7 100 kHz and 7 130 to 7 200 kHz. Antennas: Antennas are limited to antennas with less than unity gain relative to a dipole. Stationary Mobile stations shall use antennas that rely solely on their vehicles for support and shall not exceed a height of 5 metres above ground. Portable station antennas may not be erected and installed before the day of the contest and no permanent manmade structure may be used to either house equipment or for antenna supports. See Blue Book for more info

RSGB Commonwealth Contest: It promotes contacts between stations in the UK&CD, Commonwealth and Mandated Territories. Objective: To achieve a good score by working as many stations and bonuses as possible. Date & Time: 10th - 11th March 2018 10:00 - 10:00 UTC. Frequencies and Power: CW only. 3.5, 7, 14, 21 and 28 MHz. On 3.5 MHz , DX contacts only may be made below 3510 kHz. On 14 MHz no operation is allowed above 14060 kHz. Only one signal may be transmitted at any one time.

SARL VHF/UHF Analogue Contest  (SSB/AM/FM/CW): Aim: The VHF/UHF contest is a test of operator ability and station design. To promote activity on the VHF/UHF and microwave bands. To encourage Amateurs to work greater distances than usual by operating portable/ field stations in favourable locations and by optimising equipment and operating techniques at both field and home stations. To provide opportunities for Amateurs to activate and work new grid squares. The Contest is open to all licensed Radio Amateurs in South Africa, Namibia (V5), Botswana (A2), Zimbabwe (Z2), Mozambique (C9), Lesotho (7P) and Swaziland (3DA). Only contacts with these states will count. The general rules covered in pages 4 – 9 of the SARL Contesting Manual (Blue Book) are to be followed. Dates and Times: 10:00 UTC Saturday 10 March to 10:00 UTC Sunday 11 March 2018. ( See Blue Book for more info)

BARTG HF RTTY CONTEST: A 48hr contest with the emphasis on accuracy. The BARTG HF RTTY contest is the longest running RTTY contest. The contest forms round two of the four contest series for the single operator championship. Period of Operation: The contest runs on the third full weekend of March from 0200z on Saturday until 0159z on the Monday. BANDS: 10m, 15m, 20m, 40m, & 80m. EXCHANGE: RST, MESSAGE NUMBER. The number must be a three or four figure number starting at 001 and incrementing by one per contact. TIME UTC. A full four figure UTC(GMT) time must be sent as part of the exchange. Example: G3XXX 599 156 1749.

CQ World-Wide WPX Contest: I. Objective: For amateurs world wide to contact as many amateurs and prefixes as possible during the contest period. SSB: March 24-25, 2018 Starts: 0000 UTC Saturday Ends: 2359 UTC Sunday Period of Operation: 48 hours. Single Operator stations may operate 36 of the 48 hours – off times must be a minimum of 60 minutes during which no QSO is logged. Multi-operator stations may operate the full 48 hours. Bands: Only the 1.8, 3.5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 MHz bands may be used. Observance of established band plans is strongly encouraged. EXCHANGE: RS(T) report plus a progressive contact serial number starting with 001 for the first contact.

Russian WW MultiMode Contest:  We invite all fans of all modes to take part in 5th RUS-WW-MM from 12.00 UTC on Saturday 31st March till 11:59 UTC on Sunday 1st April, 2018. Types of modulation: BPSK63, CW, RTTY45, SSB. The repeated contacts are permitted on different bands and different modes providing that a contact will be made not earlier than in 3 minutes. The output power should not exceed the resolved power according to the radio amateur license of the participant. The operator may change the bands no more than 10 times within calendar hour (with zero on 59-th minute of each hour). Only one transmitted signal is permitted at any time. Bands: 160 m, 80 m, 40 m, 20 m, 15 m, 10 m.


SARL Forum Active Topics
Honestly !!!  25/02/2018  22:04:57
by: ZS6YI
Bouvet 3Y0I  25/02/2018  20:05:35
by: ZS6P
2018 SARL Contest Manual  25/02/2018  18:05:52
by: ZS1II
Kirisun KP3600 UHF  25/02/2018  18:00:00
by: V51PJ
Meteor scatter 
 1  2
25/02/2018  17:58:20
by: V51PJ
Finding a winch for my Tower  25/02/2018  11:23:33
by: ZS6MAW
Seagate HDD PCB where can I buy in SA?  24/02/2018  19:40:55
by: ZS1F
 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20
   21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30  31  32  33
24/02/2018  11:44:21
by: V51PJ
PC Fan  24/02/2018  11:29:59
by: ZS6AW
BOUVET DXpedition heading for CAPETOWN 
 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9
23/02/2018  21:19:45
by: ZS1AU

Commercial Hamads 


Direct importer of a wide selection of SWR meters, H.F., V.H.F. and U.H.F. base and mobile antennas. Amateur radio transceivers, antenna analyzers, etc. Affordable shipping costs for out of town customers and subsidized shipping to SARL members. Check out all my amateur radio goodies here. 0720268909.


Light Engineering Works

General engineering, part remanufacturing  turning, milling, drilling.Specialised welding of steel, stainless steel, aluminium and cast iron.Gear repair and remanufacturing.Prototype industrial and automotive  parts and brackets made to specification,  Heavy duty antenna support and Mobile brackets including standoff brackets and antenna parts manufactured.Tower and tower part repairs also undertaken. Contact Willie Wright ZS6WC.0823351356.


Place your commercial hamads on the home page.  Book a six months space for R300 or 12 months at R500 prepaid with order   The advertisements will be  text only up to 60 words including address, telephone number and click through URL to advertisers' website and email address. Adverisement can be changed  Send your contact details to and we will contact you or call the NARC at 011 675 2393

What is Amateur Radio ? 

Tell me more  about Amateur Radio

Radio Amateurs, or "Hams" use two-way radio communication to make contact with other radio amateurs all over the world. They are even able to use satellites and on occasion speak with astronauts. Radio Hams can do this from home or while mobile in cars, boats or on foot.

Radio Hams have a full range or communication modes at their disposal. These include plain voice, Morse code, numerous digital computer modes and even graphical modes like television. As a licensed amateur radio operator you will be able to join in experiments using all these modes.

mateur radio can be enjoyed by young and old, male and female, even the most severely disabled can make friends around the world from their own home. This hobby knows no boundaries.

Random Photo from the Call book.

  SARL Headquarters, ZS6SRL


Sam's Radio

CDS Advert 


 Click here to visit website 


Conical Technologies

 Click here to go to the Kevtronics web 

RF Design

Worked All ZS award
An interesting operating goal

The entry level for the WAZS award is 100 different call signs. The programme has recently been expanded to include higher level endorsements, such as WAZS-200, WAZS-300, etc. Endorsements may also be obtained for specific modes, eg: CW, SSB, etc.
Click here for more information...

lboat034a.gif (1979 bytes)SA Maritime Net

The South African Maritime Mobile Net provides weather reports and maintains contact with sailing vessels from around the coast and high seas.
The net operates 7 days a week.

There are two regular schedule times as follows:

  • 06:30 UTC and 11:30 UTC on 14 316 kHz high seas net.
  • 06:35 UTC and 11:35 UTC on 7 120 kHz coastal net - the net lasts approximately 30 minutes .


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This page last modified: 27/7/2017