Not Logged in
The South African Radio League
The National Association for Amateur Radio in South Africa
Proudly serving Amateur Radio since 1925

Member Logon Members Only
Callsign: Password: Forgot your password...? Click here.
Forgot your password?       Having problems logging on? Click here for Help.

Change your SARL logon password Members Only
SARL Amateur Radio Hall of Fame

Amateur Radio in Action Symposiums

Amateur Radio Today - weekly news
SARL Antenna Defence Fund
Propagation Research 5MHz/472 kHz
Media Resources
SARL Diary of Events
Radio Amateur's Examination

>> Examination numbers

>> Examination Results
SA-QSL service


What is Amateur Radio?
Today′s Events
There are no events today.

Upcoming Events
June 2
June 16
July 14
July 14
September 1

Previous Month November 2017 Next Month



SARL Today HF Update with ZS4BS VHF/UHF News with Mike Bosch ZS2FM Contest News with Geoff ZS6C SARL Forum current topics Commercial Hamads


Amateur Radio Today and SARL NEWS. Listen to  these programmes on line or download to retransmit on local nets, a SARL service to Radio Amateurs. Get the transmission schedule here .

Sunday 20 May  2018

SARLNUUS  met Anette Jacobs ZR6D luister/laaiaf

SARLNEWS  with Dave Reece ZS1DFR listen/download


AMATEUR RADIO TODAY with Hans van de Groenendaal ZS6AKV listen/download here . More details about Today's programme here

BAD OPERATING PRACTICES ON HF - Following a recent communicated trend of on air abuse including misconduct on 20 m, the Namibian Amateur Radio League (NARL) President Werner, V51JP and the SARL President Nico, ZS6QL engaged with the respective individuals and were able to resolve the matter. Unfortunately, this did not end there, we are currently facing a situation where South African radio amateurs are now themselves guilty of misconduct on the air.

Amateur radio is a self-governing service and we as respected amateurs operate in accordance with a code of conduct which stand for cooperation, assistance, loyalty, good-will, patience, consideration and friendship when operating on the air.

The SARL Council would like to appeal to South African amateurs to refrain from bad behaviour and poor operating practices. Please promote fair play and adhere to the amateur code of conduct on the air in the spirit of amateur radio.



Radio ZS May 2018

The May 2018 issue of Radio ZS is available for download - all 72 pages! 

Young South African Radio Amateurs invited to apply for YOTA 2018 - South Africa will host 80 young Radio Amateurs from 34 countries in Europe, Africa and parts of the Middle East, for a week-long international event from 8 – 15 August 2018. This is the first time that YOTA (Youngsters–on–the–Air Summer Event) is presented in South Africa and hosted by the South African Radio League (SARL).  

Applications are now invited for the South African Team and anyone aged between 16 and 25 is invited to apply for selection as a team member and participate in this amazing amateur radio event.

“This annual event creates, in addition to amateur radio, the opportunity to learn about different nationalities and cultures, foster international friendships and goodwill as well as learning new radio communication and technical skills”, says SARL president, Nico van Rensburg. YOTA brings together young radio amateurs under the age of 26 who have a passion for amateur radio and technology to learn new skills, discuss and share ideas about amateur radio and its future. This year’s camp will not just focus on teaching individual skills but look at empowering the group to become mentors and transfer the skills they have learned. 

The week long programme includes building a radio transceiver kit, becoming involved in launching and tracking of a high altitude balloon with various radio equipment on-board, hone their communication skills using multi frequency amateur radio stations and other technology and communications based activities. 

To be considered for selection in the South African team visit,   complete the online application in full and submit before 30 May 2018. The SARL YOTA Team Selection Committee will notify successful applicants by 17 June 2018. Full details about the 2018 event can be found on For additional information contact the team at 

Radio Amateurs and companies can become involved in YOTA 2018 by financially contributing. For banking and PayPal details visit Support the future of amateur radio.

Get radio active in a different way - The SARL will soon be featuring a 3 minute slot on LM Radio. It will be broadcast mid-morning on a Saturday on 702 kHz AM from Johannesburg.   The SARL invites all young radio amateurs to send us a WhatsApp voice note. Record why you think amateur radio is cool or “Amateur radio is cool because it gets into new technologies …” Use your own words.  Start your voice note with I am, your name and callsign. The voice note must not be longer than 1 minute. Send your voice note to 076 402 1464.  You may just be the next radio star. Send as many as you like. We will select the best!


ARRL HANDBOOK -   only 2 copies of the 2017 edition are available. The 2018 is no longer available. For details visit

Amateur Radio License fee increase

ICASA has informed the SARL that the licence fee will be increased by 5.3% on 1 April 2018. The new fees will be 

1 Year   -              R 141.00

2 Year   -              R 269.00

3 Year   -              R 386.00

4 Year   -              R 492.00

5 Year   -              R 588.00  

ICASA will start the invoicing process for the 2018/2019 period from 5 February 2018. Radio Amateurs are reminded that it is their responsibility to ensure their license is up to date. If for some reason no invoice is received, check that ICASA has been informed of any address changes. 

Avoid the hassles of having to renew each year, opt for a multi-year licence. Simply, when renewing pay the appropriate amount. On the EFT state 5 Year licence and your callsign. Also send an email to with a copy of the EFT payment.

ICASA Licence Fees - DO NOT pay the ICASA licence fee into the SARL bank account, all moneys wrongfully paid into the SARL account will be refunded less the bank charges associated with these transactions.

The correct account for your ICASA Licence Fee is NEDBANK Account number: 14 62 00 29 27, Branch Code: 146245 - Corporate Client Services – Pretoria and in the reference field type in your licence number and callsign. 

2018 Advertising in Radio ZS and the SARL Web site

Radio ZS and the SARL web welcomes advertising. It is a source of information for readers. To place an advertisement in Radio ZS, contact Dennis, ZS4BS, at To advertise on the League web site, contact Hans, ZS6AKV at

Advertising Rates

Display (cameo) on home page and Radio ZS Strip advertisement (10 cm by 2 columns) - R500 pm - R2 500 for 6 months - R4 500 per annum

Commercial Hamad on home page - R60 pm - R300 for 6 months - R500 per annum

Terms and conditions

All contract advertisements content may be changed monthly on 5 working day notice

The rates are based on the complete supply of material in Jpeg unless otherwise negotiated. For artwork additional charges may apply as agreed

The content of the advertisements must comply with regulations and norms acceptable in South Africa

All advertisements are playable in advance by EFT to SA Radio League, ABSA, account no 4071 588 849 branch code 632 005

All correspondence and material must be sent to with a copy to

HF Update with Dennis, ZS4BS/1 - 19 May 2018 

Get your weekly copy of HF Happenings at 

DXpeditions Delayed. Both the 3D2CR DXpedition to Conway Reef and the T31T DXpedition to Kanton Island, Central Kiribati have been delayed. Dom, 3Z9DX and the Rebel DX Group were expected to start from Conway around 21 May. "We want to do it as one trip", Dom said on, but "there is a delay from the Kiribati government with the delivery of a new SAT emergency system for early warning earthquake and tsunami".

CQ WW DX Contest. Effective 14 May, John Dorr, K1AR, is the new Director of the CQ World Wide DX Contest. He succeeds Doug Zwiebel, KR2Q, who has been CQ WW Director for the past two years and who has stepped down for personal reasons. John, K1AR has been a member of the CQ WW Contest Committee since the mid-1970s and served as CQ magazine's Contesting Editor from 1989 to 2011. A two-time medallist in the World Radiosport Team Championship (WRTC), he was inducted into the CQ Contest Hall of Fame in 1997.

France, F. For the 67th year the Association des Radioamateurs de la Sarthe, F6KFI will operate a special event station for the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Look for TM24H between 3 and 17 June, with activity on various bands and modes (SSB, CW, RTTY, PSK, FT8). QSL via the bureau to F6KFI.

Malta, 9H. Thomas, SV2CLJ will be active as 9H3SV from Malta (EU-023) between 24 and 31 May. He will operate SSB, RTTY, PSK and FT8 on 80-2 metres. QSL via LoTW, eQSL or direct only to SV2CLJ.

Jamaica, 6Y. Armin, DK9PY will be active again as 6Y6N from Jamaica (NA-097) from 23 May to 2 June. He will operate CW only on 160 to 10 metres and will participate in the CQ WW WPX CW Contest. QSL via DK9PY.

East Malaysia, 9M6. Saty, JE1JKL will be active again as 9M6NA from Labuan Island (OC-133), East Malaysia from 21 May to 11 June, including an entry in the CQ WW WPX CW Contest. QSL via LoTW or Club Log's OQRS.

Svalbard, JW. Karl, LA8DW ( will be active again as JW8DW from Longyearbyen (EU-026), Svalbard on 26-29 May. QSL via LoTW, or via the bureau to home call; log search on Club Log.

Cyprus, 5B.  Bob, 5B4AGN and Nick, G3RWF are active as 5B80FOC during May in celebration of the 80th anniversary of the FOC.  QSL via M0URX.

Isle of Man, GI.  Bob, MD0CCE will be active as GT4FOC from May 21 to 25 to celebrate the 80th anniversary of the FOC.  QSL GT4FOC via G3SWH.

Germany, DA.  Special event station DQ2018KTMS is active until the end of the year to mark the 101st gathering of German Catholics in Muenster.  QSL via bureau.

Honduras, HR.  Rudy, N2WQ, Paul, K1XM, Charlotte, KQ1F and Dennis, W1UE will be active as home calls/HR9 from Roatan Island, IOTA NA-057, from 19 to 28 May.  Activity will be on the HF bands.  They will be active as HQ9X in the upcoming CQ World Wide WPX CW contest as a Multi-2 entry.  QSL HQ9X via KQ1F and all others to home calls.

Greece, SV.  Members of the Radio Amateur Association of Greece are active with special event call SX60RAAG to celebrate their 60th anniversary.  QSL via bureau.

VHF+ UHF+ MICROWAVE NEWS by Mike Bosch ZS2FM has last VHF column written 11 May 2018. RIP Mike 


Mike Bosch ZS2FM sadly passed away at the age of 92 on 13 May. Here is his last column he wrote on 11 May. RIP Mike


On 13 May 2018 the key of Mike Bosch ZS2FM became silent. He passed way at his home in Port Elizabeth two days after writing his regular VHF column on the SARL Web and his script for Focus on VHF on Amateur Radio Today, his last.

Mike Bosch was born in 1926 and licenced as ZS2FM in 1948. Mike read about the reception of BBC TV in Cape Town by Henry Rieder ZS1P (†) in 1949. Mike built a TV receiver around a VCR-97 war surplus radar cathode ray tube and managed to pick up the TV sound on 41,5 MHz from Alexandra Palace, London. As the solar cycle declined, the receiver was stripped to build an oscilloscope, but fortunately the VHF converter remained intact. In 1956, the MUF rose above 45 MHz again and the oscilloscope was turned back into a TV receiver with the addition of a sawtooth oscillator and a video IF stage connected to the VHF converter. A few weeks later, he picked up his first TV picture from the BBC on this homebrew TV receiver. That event was the spark that started a lifelong love affair with VHF and above, especially the 50 MHz band. He wrote his first article for RadioZS, entitled “See TV on your oscilloscope”, in 1959.


Mike was a prolific author , sharing his experiences and passion with a wide audience. He was passioned about the band above 50 MHz and dedicated most of his amateur radio lives to the promotion of VHF, UHF and Microwave activity. He received several awards for his contribution to Radio ZS and the SARL web and forum. He received the Jack Twine merit award  in 2000 and this year was awarded the Willy Wilson Gold badge award for his outstanding achievements in Amateur radio technology and his support of the SARL.


Already in his nineties he wrote a weekly update on VHF activity on the SARL web and for the past few months scripted the amateur radio today programme Focus on VHF.


The South African Amateur Radio Development Trust named Mike the Radio Amateur of the Year in 1987. His research on Sporadic E was cited as a contributing factor. At the time, he had been engaged in this research for three years and was planning to continue for another 8 years. In 1962, Mike was invited by Professor J. A. Gledhill at Rhodes University, Grahamstown, to join Dr Georg Gruber in the exploration of the radio emission from Jupiter. A year later, Georg and Mike were invited by Professor C. H. Barrow of Florida State University, USA, to become part of their worldwide research team that researched those radio emissions. Mike and Georg received honourable mentions in the British journal, Nature.

Through his amateur career Mike kept a list of South African VHF/UHF and Microwave records up to date.

Mike was a giant in Amateur Radio and a dedicated pioneer in many aspects. His legacy will live on as a true inspiration for many in the amateur world of today and the future. Thank you, Mike. Rest in peace.


Focus on VHF 12 May 2018 

In today’s tutorial Mike looks at  the difference between VHF and HF antennas?

The main difference is wavelength, where HF with its longer wavelengths use wire antennas successfully. The gain and directivity of a HF antenna can be improved with beam types of antennas, such as the Yagi. Where a HF Yagi usually consists of a long boom and limited number of elements, in contrast a VHF Yagi may consist of a long boom with  many elements, resulting in very high gain and a narrower beamwidth.


Unlike HF that relies on the ionization of the F, F1 and F2 layers for propagation, VHF is blessed with many modes of propagation, some are seasonal while others appear unexpectedly. Your location will determine how many propagation modes you could benefit . VHF beam antennas, are more challenging to build and require more accurate measurements.


If you are equipped with a very high gain Yagi on the VHF bands, 50 MHz and 144 MHz, then you could expect the best results and distances from Sporadic-E, Meteor Scatter and Tropo Ducting including some other propagation modes.


Next week we will focus on UHF equipment. This what Mike wrote on Friday 11 May. He sadly passed away on 14 May. RIP Mike.


Let us now look at some VHF, UHF & MICROWAVE NEWS


NASA SAYS SOLAR MINIMUM IS COMING – High up in the clear blue noon sky, the Sun appears to be much the same day-in, day-out, year after year. But astronomers have long known that this is not true. The Sun does change. Properly-filtered telescopes reveal a fiery disk often speckled with dark sunspots. Sunspots are strongly magnetized, and they crackle with solar flares which are magnetic explosions that illuminate Earth with flashes of X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation. The Sun is a seething mass of activity.


Every 11 years or so, sunspots fade away, bringing a period of relative calm. “This is called solar minimum,” says Dean Pesnell of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “And it’s a regular part of the sunspot cycle.”The Sun is heading toward solar minimum now. Sunspot counts were relatively high in 2014, and now they are sliding toward a low point expected in 2019-2020. The good news is that they do not expect the Maunder Minimum to follow.

VHF REPORT FROM KLEINZEE – Kobus van der Merwe, ZS3JPY, says: “Good afternoon Mike here is the data that is given via the condition's on the VHF Tropospheric Ducting and it is all done via vertically antennas. We have had up to 15 stasions on the Monday nights 144,500 MHz simplex FM West Coast Radio QSO party from Cape Town to Langebaan, Kleinzee and Port Nolloth. The Cape Town APRS digi repeater’s antenna’s main lobe is  trnasmitting away from the West Coast this again shows that the Tropo Ducting conditions are there it just has to be used by the operators. I have asked Pieter V51PJ to switch his beacon to a vertical antenna and immediately the signal improved to S5/8 to S5/9 at my QTH with the Yagi vertical in any direction. At the same time Charles, ZS1CF, received the beacon in Langebaan S5/5 on a vertical antenna.


“We have Cobus ZS3CVB in Port Nolloth in QSO with Eben ZS3EP 140 km in Springbok on 145,500 FM vertical the same time that the QSO’s are happening along the West Coast, Cobus then relayed Eben into the West Coast ducting with crossband repeater and again the experience of experimenting payed off. I have to add we don't hear the band conditions are bad on the VHF FM vertical simplex QSO’s that take place. We have made a video of our QSO’s which shows some interesting information that can help you make similar QSO’s. The video can be found on the facebook pages of Boland and Cape Town Amateur Radio club page's as well as the  ZS/V51/PY/ZD7 pages.”


GOOGLE’S PLANNED INTERNET NETWORK – Mobile phone users could receive signals from balloons floating in the stratosphere if a project launched by Google this week succeeds. Google launched 30 test balloons in New Zealand to test the possibility of having a global network of balloons floating about 19 km above Earth to provide internet access and mobile phone signals. Mike Cassidy, head of the project dubbed Project Loon, said in a blogpost: "We believe that it might actually be possible to build a ring of balloons, flying around the globe on the stratospheric winds, that provides internet access to the earth below.


"It's very early days, but we've built a system that uses balloons, carried by the wind at altitudes twice as high as commercial planes, to beam internet access to the ground at speeds similar to today's 3G networks or faster. As a result, we hope balloons could become an option for connecting rural, remote and underserved areas, and for helping with communications after natural disasters. "The balloons are 15 metres wide and 12 metres tall and filled with helium gas. People connect to the balloon network using a special internet antenna attached to their building. The signal bounces from balloon to balloon, then to the global internet back on Earth. Cassidy said: "There are many terrestrial challenges to internet connectivity – jungles, archipelagos and mountains. There are also major cost challenges. Right now, for example, in most of the countries in the southern hemisphere, the cost of an internet connection is more than a month's income."


BOTH CUBESATS ARE ON THEIR WAY TO PLANET MARS – NASA has received radio signals indicating that the first-ever CubeSats headed to deep space are alive and well. The first signal was received at 12:15 Pacific Standard Time and the second at 13:58 Pacific Standard Time on 5 May 2018. Engineers will now be performing a series of checks before both CubeSats enter their cruise to deep space.


Mars Cube One, or MarCO, is a pair of briefcase-sized spacecraft that launched along with NASA's InSight Mars lander at 4:05 Pacific Standard Time on 5 May 2018 from Vandenberg Air Force Base in Central California. InSight is a scientific mission that will probe the Red Planet's deep interior for the first time; the name stands for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport. The twin MarCO CubeSats are on their own separate mission: rather than collecting science, they will follow the InSight lander on its cruise to Mars, testing out miniature spacecraft technology along the way. Both were programmed to unfold their solar panels soon after launch, followed by several opportunities to radio back their health.


"Both MarCO-A and B say 'Polo!' It's a sign that the little sats are alive and well," said Andy Klesh, chief engineer for the MarCO mission at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, which built the twin spacecraft. The computers inside each MarCO CubeSat haven't been turned on since being tested at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, in mid-March, where they were prepared for launch by Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems of Irvine, California. What was needed in order to prove successful should not be underestimated for the pair of CubeSats. The batteries had to retain enough charge to ensure the solar panels deploy, stabilise their attitude, turn towards the Sun and finally turn their radio systems on.


A couple of weeks will be spent assessing how the MarCO CubeSats are performing. If they survive the radiation of space and function as planned, they'll fly over the Red Planet during InSight's entry, descent and landing in November. They each have a special antenna to relay InSight's vital signs during the infamous "Seven Minutes of Terror," the crucial phase which has claimed the majority of humanity's probes sent to land on the Red Planet. CubeSats were invented to teach engineering students how to build spacecraft. Today, they offer access to space for private companies and research institutions. They're just one kind of "SmallSat," which includes a broad range organized by weight class. CubeSats are generally under 15 kilograms, and can even weigh as little as 2.5 kilograms. Their distinctively modular design makes it easier to buy "plug-in" parts rather than custom-design every part of the spacecraft.


NASA is taking the opportunity to test several experimental systems with MarCO. Their radios, folding high-gain antennas, attitude control and propulsion systems are all included to prove new technologies in deep space. "We're nervous but excited," said Joel Krajewski of JPL, MarCO's project manager. "A lot of work went into designing and testing these components so that they could survive the trip to Mars and relay data during InSight's landing. But our broader goal is to learn more about how to adapt CubeSat technologies for future deep-space missions. "When InSight arrives on Mars in November, it won't rely on MarCO for sending landing data back to Earth. That job will go to NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, as well as several Earth-based astronomy telescopes. But the MarCO mission could help prove the potential for CubeSats as a kind of bring-your-own "black box" for future NASA missions. MarCO was built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which manages InSight and MarCO for NASA. 


Apologies for not  posting last weekend. This was due to a technical problem.

Tutorial 13 – VHF transmitting and receiving equipment 

In the early days most radio amateurs built their own AM transmitters and some even tried their hand at building communication receivers. When the solid-state era arrived the Japanese shrunk all mode transmitters and receivers into a single unit and called it transceivers, based on transistors and chips, which makes it difficult for amateur to emulate having to look for spares etc. so it was far easier to purchase the finished professional job. 

Many HF transceivers in the African States already include the 50 MHz band, so this has solved half of their VHF problem. It is not known how many commercial repeater systems  are in use and  are some allocated for amateur use on 145 MHz. If so then they are already equipped with FM transceivers, which must be reprogrammed with the new frequencies. Later they can try to replace the FM transceivers with all mode, which will open up a new VHF world for them. 

Once you can listen to distant VHF signals on 50 MHz and 144 MHz these two VHF bands will provide the best between them, such as Super Sporadic-E season, Meteor Scatter and Tropo Ducting across the land. Then keep an eye on Tropo Ducting developing along the African West Coast on 144 MHz Tropo Ducting, also watch out for ZD7VC in St, Helena Island.

Next week we will discuss VHF antennas. 


A FOREIGN STATE IS GETTING INTERESTED IN VHF – We have a ZS ham working in EXO country and he is pushing VHF. Then the good news came hot off the Press, EX0 country will get its 2m and 70cm licences soon. He informed V51PJ  yesterday that the government is busy finalising the licencing of the hams there. With the enthusiasm of us on VHF and above he got interested in VHF and UHF too. In EX0 country he has a ZS callsign with an EX0/prefix, and that shows us how important it is to promote VHF and higher. The seed planted in him now spread to a country that never had VHF and priveleges available for hams before. So yes the dream for Africa is not impossible. We must just stay positive and active. 

This new amateur is ZS6AJZ Charles and he lives in Kyrgyzstan. His new call sign could be EXOCK. The officials collected his application on Thursday, and it is expected that licences will be issued by 7 May 2018. His old call sign was EXO/ZS6AJZ now he is being issued with a local call sign. 

Africa has lots of thunderstorms and rain, which make it perfect for backscatter, lightning scatter and rain scatter as well as super seasons of Sporadic-E and Meteor Scatter.  But how to get their interest? Pieter Jacobs, V51PJ, says he has friends in the communication department here in Namibia that have personal contact with the guys in the African States in communication departments. They regularly get together and discuss ITU regulations for Africa. I will contact them this coming week and see what we can put together. This I think is where it must start. Because the ITU gave frequencies, for hams but some countries don’t issue because no one asked for its use as a ham. They only stick to HF only! 

UNEXPECTED OPENING TO REUNION ISLAND – Hugo van Zyl, ZS5HV, reported from Scottburgh that on 26 April 2018. He detected an opening to Reunion Island. He hooked up with FR5DN on 144,300 MHz JT65b. Phil TX-ed every fourth sequence, and was still ongoing at 06:04 UTC.

MESSAGE: .060400 5 – 13 0,2 474  3 * CQ FR5DN LG98 I 10

LATEST: 074800 2-7 0.6 458 2 * CQ FR5DN LG78 1 10 

Try and be around during the next opening to Reunion Island, which could happen anytime. SSB on 144 MH to Reunion Island has been worked from the coast of Natal  over a distance of around 2700 km and as far south as about 3200 km to East London 

FR5DN submitted report of latest opeings to Reunion Island.


Ian Roberts, ZS6BTE, reported that a cold front stretched all the way from KG33 to Kimberley and Aliwal North. It is known that when a cold front approached the Western Cape then VHF signals along the South Coast are strongly enhanced with Tropo Ducting until the cold front passed along the coast and the ducting disappeared. Likwise when a cold front spreads across part of the country it could enhance VHF signals in the area ahead of it. In the Eastern part of the USA they have often observed this type of phenomena and worked many VHF stations under these conditions. Unfortunately the effects of Cold fronts across this country are not well documented. 

FANTASTIC COMMS BETWEEN EAST LONDON AND RAMSGATE – Peter Tottle, ZS2ABF reports from East London: “The Hepburn predictions for this week showed lots of red blobs along the S. E. Coast and I was looking forward to great contacts. Monday “sked” night, was very poor up into Natal. Dave ZS5DJ and I had a very poor QSO. The next night Tuesday was also poor and not as the charts predicted, but then they are on predictions (for across the Oceans). We persevered and came on last night, Wednesday. What a fantastic QSO we had. Dave and I could not believe the difference from the previous two days. Dave ZSDJ came blasting into East London like an Express Tran. We switched to FM  and the results were better than telephone quality. Dave said my sigals were 59+20 dB. Not bad for 325 km on FM. We then switched back to  USB on 144,300 MHz, because other Hams may also find out that conditions were good along the S.E. Coast and if so they would be calling on USB. We called CQ and gave many breaks, but no one was heard. Guys you missed a good opportunity to have made great contacts. We will only be calling on frequency next Monday evening on our routine sked night. 73 Peter


Imagine if, many millions of years ago, dinosaurs drove cars through cities of mile-high buildings. A preposterous idea, right? Over the course of tens of millions of years, however, all of the direct evidence of a civilization—its artifacts and remains—gets ground to dust. How do we really know, then, that there weren't previous industrial civilizations on Earth that rose and fell long before human beings appeared? It is a compelling thought experiment, and one that Adam Frank, a professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Rochester, and Gavin Schmidt, the director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, take up in a paper published in the International Journal of Astrobiology. "Gavin and I have not seen any evidence of another industrial civilization," Frank explains. But by looking at the deep past in the right way, a new set of questions about civilizations and the planet appear: What geological footprints do civilizations leave? Is it possible to detect an industrial civilization in the geological record once it disappears from the face of its host planet? "These questions make us think about the future and the past in a much different way, including how any planetary-scale civilization might rise and fall."

In what they deem the "Silurian Hypothesis," Frank and Schmidt define a civilization by its energy use. Human beings are just entering a new geological era that many researchers refer to as the Anthropocene, the period in which human activity strongly influences the climate and environment. In the Anthropocene, fossil fuels have become central to the geological footprint humans will leave behind on Earth. By looking at the Anthropocene's imprint, Schmidt and Frank examine what kinds of clues future scientists might detect to determine that human beings existed. In doing so, they also lay out evidence of what might be left behind if industrial civilizations like ours existed millions of years in the past. Human beings began burning fossil fuels more than 300 years ago, marking the beginnings of industrialization. The researchers note that the emission of fossil fuels into the atmosphere has already changed the carbon cycle in a way that is recorded in carbon isotope records.

Other ways human beings might leave behind a geological footprint include: Global warming, from the release of carbon dioxide and perturbations to the nitrogen cycle from fertilizers rates Plastics, synthetic pollutants, and even things such as steroids, which will be geochemically detectable for millions, and perhaps even billions, of years uclear war, if it happened, which would leave behind unusual radioactive isotopes

"As an industrial civilization, we're driving changes in the isotopic abundances because we're burning carbon," Frank says. "But burning fossil fuels may actually shut us down as a civilization. What imprints would this or other kinds of industrial activity from a long dead civilization leave over tens of millions of years?"

The questions raised by Frank and Schmidt are part of a broader effort to address climate change from an astrobiological perspective, and a new way of thinking about life and civilizations across the universe. Looking at the rise and fall of civilizations in terms of their planetary impacts can also affect how researchers approach future explorations of other planets. "We know early Mars and, perhaps, early Venus were more habitable than they are now, and conceivably we will one day drill through the geological sediments there, too," Schmidt says. "This helps us think about what we should be looking for."Schmidt points to an irony, however: if a civilization is able to find a more sustainable way to produce energy without harming its host planet, it will leave behind less evidence that it was there. "You want to have a nice, large-scale civilization that does wonderful things but that doesn't push the planet into domains that are dangerous for itself, the civilization," Frank says. "We need to figure out a way of producing and using energy that doesn't put us at risk."

That said, the earth will be just fine, Frank says. It's more a question of whether humans will be. 

Can we create a version of civilization that doesn't push the earth into a domain that's dangerous for us as a species? "The point is not to 'save the earth,'" says Frank. "No matter what we do to the planet, we're just creating niches for the next cycle of evolution. But, if we continue on this trajectory of using fossil fuels and ignoring the climate change it drives, we human beings may not be part of Earth's ongoing evolution.

CONTEST NEWS WITH ZS6C Updated 3 May 2018 

 Antique Wireless Association Valve QSO Party: Aim: The aim of the AWA Valve QSO party is to create activity on the 40 and 80 metre bands. It is a phone only contest using AM and SSB. Preferably, valve radios or radios with valves in them may be used. No linear amplifiers may be used. Date and Time: AM QSO Party- 13:00 to 17:00 UTC Saturday 5. SSB QSO Party: 13:00 to 17:00 UTC Sunday 6 May. Frequencies: 40 metres: 7 063 to 7 100 kHz and 7 130 to 7 200 kHz, 80 metres: Exchange: Call sign, RS report, a consecutive serial numbers starting at 001 and the type of radio used, e.g. HT37 TX. See Blue Book for more details 

ARI International DX Contest: Aim: It is a world-wide competition: everybody can work everybody.

Dates and time: The contest will be held on the first full weekend of May 5-6 starting at 12.00pm Saturday and ending at 1159Z Sunday. Bands: Bands from 10m through 80m, except WARC bands. Exchange: Italian stations will send RST and two letters to identify their province. Other stations will send RST and a serial number from 001.  See 

VOLTA RTTY DX CONTEST: TEST PERIOD: 12:00 GMT Saturday May 12, 2018 until 12:00 GMT Sunday May 13. BANDS: 3,5 - 7 - 14 -21 - 28 MHz Amateur bands. MESSAGE: Must consist of: RST - QSO progressive number starting from 001 - Your CQ Zone number. (es.: 599-001-15). See 

UN DX CONTEST:  Aim: UN DX CONTEST is organized and held by the national amateur radio society The Kazakhstan Federation of Radiosport and Radioamateur (KFRR). Contest period: 06.00 UTC 19 May 2018 – 21.00 UTC 19 May 2018. Bands: 80m, 40m, 20m, 15m, 10m (according to the IARU band plan for HF contests). Modes: CW and SSB. Exchange: Kazakhstan stations send RS(T) report plus KDA award district code. Non-Kazakhstan stations should send RS(T) report plus progressive serial number, starting with 001 for the first contact. See

AEGEAN RTTY CONTEST: Date: 3rd full weekend of May, from 12:00 UTC Saturday till 12:00 UTC Sunday  19 and 20 May. Mode: RTTY BAUDOT. Bands: 10, 15, 20, 40 and 80 meters, according to the IARU Region 1 band plan. Exchange: RST + QSO number starting with 001. See 

European PSK DX Contest: Date and Time: 12:00 UTC 19.05.2018 - 12:00 UTC 20.05.2018. Bands: 80 meters (3.580 – 3.590 MHz), 40 meters (7.040 – 7.050 MHz), 20 meters (14.070 –14.080 MHz), 15 meters (21.070 – 21.080 MHz), and 10 meters (28.070 – 28.080 MHz). Exchange: All EU stations should send signal report plus EU Area Code.  DX stations should send signal report plus QSO number, starting 001. See 

His Majesty The King of Spain CW Contest: Dates: 1200 UTC Saturday till 1159 UTC Sunday (May 19-20, 2018). Bands: 10, 15, 20, 40, 80 and 160 meters, in the segments recommended by the IARU for this mode. Exchange: Spanish stations send RST and the Province abbreviation and Special station His Majesty The King of Spain (EA0) will pass the abbreviation (SMR). DX stations send RST and serial number starting with 001. See

CQ World-Wide WPX Contest: Starts: 0000 UTC Saturday Ends: 2359 UTC Sunday May 26-27. Objective: For amateurs world wide to contact as many amateurs and prefixes as possible during the contest period. Period of Operation: 48 hours. Single Operator stations may operate 36 of the 48 hours – off times must be a minimum of 60 minutes during which no QSO is logged. Multi-operator stations may operate the full 48 hours. Bands: 1.8, 3.5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 MHz bands may be used. Observance of established band plans is strongly encouraged. EXCHANGE: RS(T) report plus a progressive contact serial number starting with 001 for the first contact. Note: Multi-Two and Multi-Unlimited entrants use separate serial number sequences on each band. See 

Hammies Sprint: Aim: This is a fun activity to promote contacts between Hammies and radio amateurs in Southern African countries with an emphasis on ZU stations. Date and Time: 14:00 to 15:00 UTC 10 June 2018. Exchange: RS and provincial abbreviation, DX for all stations outside South Africa. Frequency and mode: A phone contest on the 40-metre band, 7 063 to 7 100 and 7 130 to 7 200 kHz. See Blue Book for more details 

South African Radio League Top Band QSO Party: Aim: This is a fun activity to promote contacts on 160 metres between radio amateurs in Southern African countries and to encourage radio amateurs to apply for the South African Radio League Top Band Award. Date and Time: 00:00 UTC on Thursday 21 June 2018 to 00:00 UTC on Monday 25 June 2018. Frequency: CW: 1 810 – 1 838 kHz, Phone: 1 840 – 2 000 kHz. Exchange: The exchange is a RS(T) report and provincial or country abbreviation. See Blue Book more details 

His Majesty The King of Spain SSB Contest: Dates: 1200 UTC Saturday till 1159 UTC Sunday (June 23-24, 2018). Bands: 10, 15, 20, 40, 80 and 160 meters, in the segments recommended by the IARU for this mode. Exchange: Spanish stations send RST and the Province abbreviation and Special station His Majesty The King of Spain (EA0) will pass the abbreviation (SMR). DX stations send RST and serial number starting with 001. See 

UKRAINIAN DX DIGI CONTEST: 12.00 UTC Saturday , through 12.00 UTC Sunday 23-24 June.  MODE:  RTTY 75bd and PSK63 only. BANDS:  3,5 – 7 – 14 - 21 - 28 MHz without WARC bands. Exchange:  Non-Ukrainian stations transmits RST & QSO number beginning from 001. Ukrainian stations transmits RST & two letters denoting the province(oblast).

SARL Forum Active Topics
Dankie / thanks  22/05/2018  21:46:01
by: ZS3AOR
Keel Skoonmaak !!!  22/05/2018  17:48:26
by: ZS3K
Hi Peter  22/05/2018  15:52:30
by: ZS6SID
144.300 SSB Sked 
 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20
   21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30  31  32  33  34  35  36  37  38  39  40
22/05/2018  15:17:55
by: ZS6SID
ZL1RS balloon - BB05 
 1  2  3
22/05/2018  07:13:27
by: ZS6BNE
ZS at Hamvention in USA, found lost item.  22/05/2018  06:51:56
by: ZS1YT
Monday Sked  21/05/2018  20:33:37
by: ZS2ABF
Inconsiderates on 7082  21/05/2018  20:13:10
by: ZS3PG
HF 8 channel Frequency hopping in CW segments  21/05/2018  13:30:57
by: ZS1C
ZS2FM Silent Key. 
 1  2
21/05/2018  08:22:44
by: ZS2DL

Commercial Hamads 


Direct importer of a wide selection of SWR meters, H.F., V.H.F. and U.H.F. base and mobile antennas. Amateur radio transceivers, antenna analyzers, etc. Affordable shipping costs for out of town customers and subsidized shipping to SARL members. Check out all my amateur radio goodies here. 0720268909.


Light Engineering Works

General engineering, part remanufacturing  turning, milling, drilling.Specialised welding of steel, stainless steel, aluminium and cast iron.Gear repair and remanufacturing.Prototype industrial and automotive  parts and brackets made to specification,  Heavy duty antenna support and Mobile brackets including standoff brackets and antenna parts manufactured.Tower and tower part repairs also undertaken. Contact Willie Wright ZS6WC.0823351356.


Place your commercial hamads on the home page.  Book a six months space for R300 or 12 months at R500 prepaid with order   The advertisements will be  text only up to 60 words including address, telephone number and click through URL to advertisers' website and email address. Adverisement can be changed  Send your contact details to and we will contact you or call the NARC at 011 675 2393

What is Amateur Radio ? 

Tell me more  about Amateur Radio

Radio Amateurs, or "Hams" use two-way radio communication to make contact with other radio amateurs all over the world. They are even able to use satellites and on occasion speak with astronauts. Radio Hams can do this from home or while mobile in cars, boats or on foot.

Radio Hams have a full range or communication modes at their disposal. These include plain voice, Morse code, numerous digital computer modes and even graphical modes like television. As a licensed amateur radio operator you will be able to join in experiments using all these modes.

mateur radio can be enjoyed by young and old, male and female, even the most severely disabled can make friends around the world from their own home. This hobby knows no boundaries.

Random Photo from the Call book.

 Andre George Coetzee, ZS6GCA


Sam's Radio

RF Design


CDS Advert 


 Click here to visit website 

Conical Technologies

 Click here to go to the Kevtronics web 

Worked All ZS award
An interesting operating goal

The entry level for the WAZS award is 100 different call signs. The programme has recently been expanded to include higher level endorsements, such as WAZS-200, WAZS-300, etc. Endorsements may also be obtained for specific modes, eg: CW, SSB, etc.
Click here for more information...

lboat034a.gif (1979 bytes)SA Maritime Net

The South African Maritime Mobile Net provides weather reports and maintains contact with sailing vessels from around the coast and high seas.
The net operates 7 days a week.

There are two regular schedule times as follows:

  • 06:30 UTC and 11:30 UTC on 14 316 kHz high seas net.
  • 06:35 UTC and 11:35 UTC on 7 120 kHz coastal net - the net lasts approximately 30 minutes .


Copyright © 1997-2018    South African Radio League
This page last modified: 27/7/2017